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January 2017 Science-Technology and Health


Sci-Tech and Health

Drug discovery for GPCR signalling made easy by IIT Kanpur
Department of Biological Sciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Kanpur shows that discovering new drugs that bind to G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs), which are central to almost every physiological process in our body such as vision, taste, immune response and cardiovascular regulation, has become easier.

How this is important

  • Nearly 50 per cent of prescription drugs currently available in the market for the treatment of blood pressure, heart failure, diabetes, obesity, cancer and many other human diseases target GPCR receptors.
  •  All these drugs bind to their respective receptors and either activate or stop their signalling. 
  •  In the new research it has shown that the regulation of these receptors by these drugs can be simpler than generally thought — it can be mediated by engaging only the end of the receptor, which is called the tail of the receptor.

About G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) 

  •   GPCRs are the largest and most diverse group of membrane receptors in eukaryotes. 
  •   These cell surface receptors act like an inbox for messages in the form of light energy, peptides, lipids, sugars, and proteins. 
  •  Such messages inform cells about the presence or absence of life-sustaining light or nutrients in their environment, or they convey information sent by other cells.
  • GPCRs play a role in an incredible array of functions in the human body, and increased understanding of these receptors has greatly affected modern medicine. In fact, researchers estimate that between one-third and one-half of all marketed drugs act by binding to GPCRs.

Launch of IPR Enforcement Toolkit for Police and IPR Awareness Campaign for Children 
The Commerce & Industry Ministry launched an IPR Enforcement Toolkit for Police. 

  •  The toolkit has been jointly prepared by Cell for IPR Promotion and Management (CIPAM) and Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI).
  • This toolkit will be a ready reckoner for police officials across the country in dealing with IP crimes, specifically Trade Marks counterfeiting and Copyrights piracy.
  • In addition to details of offences under various laws, it provides for checklists for registering a complaint and conducting search and seizures.
  • It also lays down general guidelines for search and seizure in case of IP crimes. 

About CIPAM

  •  The Cell for IPR Promotion and Management (CIPAM) is under the aegis of the Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion (DIPP), Ministry of Commerce & Industry, Government of India .
  •  It is working to ensure effective implementation of the National IPR Policy 2016.
  • CIPAM is collaborating with the International Trademark Association (INTA) to launch an IPR Awareness campaign for schoolchildren, which would spread the message on IPRs in a creative and engaging manner.
  •  In order to strengthen the Enforcement mechanism, CIPAM has also organized seven batches of training programmes for Police officials in State of Andhra Pradesh and UP.
  • CIPAM is actively facilitating International engagements in the field of Intellectual Property Rights. Two MoU on IPRs were recently signed with UK and Singapore.

About National IPR Policy 2016

  •  The Policy aims to push IPRs as a marketable financial asset, promote innovation and entrepreneurship, while protecting public interest.
  •  The plan will be reviewed every five years in consultation with stakeholders.
  • In order to have strong and effective IPR laws, steps would be taken — including review of existing IP laws — to update and improve them or to remove anomalies and inconsistencies.
  • The policy is entirely compliant with the WTO’s agreement on TRIPS.
  • Special thrust on awareness generation and effective enforcement of IPRs, besides encouragement of IP commercialisation through various incentives.
  • India will engage constructively in the negotiation of international treaties and agreements in consultation with stakeholders. 
  • It suggests making the department of industrial policy and promotion (DIPP) the nodal agency for all IPR issues. Copyrights related issues will also come under DIPP’s ambit from that of the Human Resource Development (HRD) Ministry.
  • Films, music, industrial drawings will be all covered by copyright.
  • The Policy also seeks to facilitate domestic IPR filings, for the entire value chain from IPR generation to commercialisation. It aims to promote research and development through tax benefits.
  • The policy left the country’s patent laws intact and specifically did not open up Section 3(d) of the Patents Act, which sets the standard for what is considered an invention in India, for reinterpretation.
  • The IPR policy favoured the government considering financial support for a limited period on sale and export of products based on IPRs generated from public-funded research.

New Organ found in Human body
The “new” organ is called the mesentery, and everybody’s digestive tract has one.

  • The mesentery was once thought to be made up of separate structures, but it has been revealed in recent research to be one continuous organ.
  • The organ is responsible for transporting blood and lymphatic fluid between the intestine and the rest of the body.
  •  The organ is a double fold of peritoneum - the lining of the abdominal cavity - that holds our intestine to the wall of our abdomen.

Other key facts
Although there are generally considered to be five organs in the human body, there are in fact now 79, including the mesentery.

Niti Aayog may seek trial run of Hyperloop: Nitin Gadkari 
The government has referred the proposal to set up a hyperloop transportation system in the country to Niti Aayog.

  •  A committee under Niti Aayog member VK Sarawat is looking into the feasibility of having hyperloop transportation in the country.
  •  US-based Hyperloop Transport Technology (HTT), during a recent meeting with Gadkari, had suggested such services to connect major Indian cities and had also sought land for a pilot project. 

Hyperloop

  •  It is a technology where a pod-like vehicle is propelled through a near-vacuum tube connecting cities at speeds matching that of an aircraft.
  •  The hyperloop concept is a brainchild of Tesla founder Elon Musk.
  • The pods would accelerate to cruising speed gradually using a linear electric motor and glide above their track using passive magnetic levitation or air bearings.
  • The tubes could also go above ground on columns or underground, eliminating the dangers of grade crossings. It is hoped that the system will be highly energy-efficient, quiet and autonomous.

Model Hyperloop system

‘Mini grids can power rural economic activity’
Mini grids can spur economic activity in rural areas and accelerate the process of expanding mobile phone network across the country due to their large capacities and the ability to connect to the national grid, according to Smart Power India.

What is Mini grids
A mini grid, as defined by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, is an off-grid power system with a generation capacity of between 10 KW and 500 KW. 

What are the issues with other solutions
One of the deficiencies of the other off-grid power solution models is that while these solutions are good in moving households away from kerosene and providing them with reliable and clean energy, they do not provide the energy required to fuel enterprise or commercial activity.

How Mini grid is advantageous

  • Usually, the power coming from the smaller off-grid solutions is DC energy. While it is good for lighting, it does not satisfy the community’s requirement to run any sort of business.A mini grid is a larger system that converts direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC) and it provides safety as per REC and CEA standards.
  • The power generated from a mini grid can be seamlessly transferred to the national grid since it is already going through a a charge controller which manages the flow of energy and an inverter which converts the electricity from DC to AC.
  •   It also has a storage facility to meet night demand as well.
  •  The power that comes out is regular and standard with no fluctuations.

Apart from commercial enterprises, rural banks or schools mini grids can fulfil the demand of  telecom service providers for powering mobile towers

World's Largest LED Street Light Replacement Project Launched
Union Power Minister Piyush Goyal launched the "world's largest" LED street light replacement project completed by SDMC in south Delhi wherein two lakh conventional street lights have been replaced with energy efficient LEDs.

  •  The initiative under the Street Lighting National Programme being implemented by the Energy Efficiency Services Limited(EESL) of Ministry of Power, will save 6.10 crore units of electricity per year thus reducing the electricity bill by 54 per cent.
  • The SLNP programme is presently running in Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Assam, Tripura, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Goa, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Rajasthan.
  •  A total of 15.36 lakh street lights have already been replaced in the country with LED bulbs, which is resulting in energy savings of 20.35 crore kWh, avoiding capacity of 50.71 MW and reducing 1.68 lakh tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions per annum.

About EESL

  •  Energy Efficiency Services Limited (EESL) is a joint venture of state-run power companies, responsible for implementation of Domestic Efficient Lighting Programme (DELP).It has reduced the prices of LED bulbs by 75%.
  • It is  responsible for implementation of Domestic Efficient Lighting Programme (DELP) or the UJALA scheme, as it is now being referred to.

Measles-rubella vaccine to roll out in February
Three years after the national vaccine advisory body recommended the introduction of the measles-rubella vaccine (MR) in the Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP), the vaccine is all set to be introduced from next month in five states.

  •   It is launched  as a part of the basket of preventive medications that every child born in India is entitled to.
  •  In a first, Karnataka will introduce Measles-rubella vaccine along with Tamilnadu, Pondicherry, Goa and Lakshadweep in a bid to eliminate measles and rubella in the region.
  • The first phase of the programme will witness the routine immunisation procedure i.e. the two doses of Measles vaccine administered at nine to 12 months age and 16-23 months age replaced by combined Measles Rubella (MR) vaccine from February.
  • The UIP basket already has ten vaccines of which measles is one; once MR is introduced, monovalent measles will be discontinued.

About Measeles Rubella

  •  Rubella — commonly known as German measles or 3-day measles — is an infection that mostly affects the skin and lymph nodes. It is caused by the rubella virus.
  •  Rubella spreads when people breathe in virus-infected fluid, such as the droplets sprayed into the air when a person with rubella sneezes or coughs, or share food or drink with someone who's infected. It also can pass through a pregnant woman's bloodstream to infect her unborn child.
  •  It's a generally mild disease in children; the primary medical danger of rubella is the infection of pregnant women because it can cause congenital rubella syndrome in developing babies.

Universal Immunisation Programme

  •  Universal Immunization Programme is a vaccination program launched by the Government of India in 1985. It became a part of Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Programme in 1992 and is currently one of the key areas under National Rural Health Mission(NRHM) since 2005.
  • The program now consists of vaccination for ten diseases-tuberculosis,  diphtheria,  pertussis (whooping cough), tetanus, poliomyelitis, measles, Hepatitis B,  Diarrhoea, Japanese Encephalitis and Pneumonia. Hepatitis B was added to the UIP in 2007. 
  • In 2014 it was announced that four vaccines will be added to the program, namely rotavirus, rubella and Japanese encephalitis, as well as the injectable polio vaccine. 
  • From February 2017, Union ministry of health and family welfare will roll out Measles-Rubella vaccine from UIP

India-CERT Signs an MoU with US-CERT
India and USA have signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between the Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT- In) under the Ministry of Electronics and Information technology of the Government of India and the Department of Homeland Security, Government of the United States of America on cooperation in the field of cyber Security.

The MoU intends to promote closer co-operation and the exchange of information pertaining to the Cyber Security in accordance with the relevant laws, rules and regulations of each economy. 

About CERT

  • Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In) is the Government organisation under Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology.
  •  It is a nodal agency that deals with cyber security threats like hacking and phishing. It strengthens security-related defence of the Indian Internet domain.

After India, other South East Asian countries opting for fractional doses of IPV: WHO 
Amid a global shortage of injectable inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) polio vaccine, countries in the South East Asian region have now opted for fractional doses of IPV .

  •  WHO said that India became the first country globally to introduce fractional doses of IPV in childhood immunisation programme in eight states and Union territories in early 2016. 
  •  South East Asia was the first WHO Region to complete the polio vaccine switch from the traditionally used trivalent oral polio vaccine (tOPV) to the bivalent vaccine (bOPV) to prevent any paralysis caused by type 2 polio virus strain in tOPV. 
  • WHO's SEAR comprises Bangladesh, Bhutan, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Timor-Leste.

What is advantage 
Amid a global shortage of injectable IPV, countries in the WHO SEAR(South East Asian Region) are opting to use fractional doses of IPV, an evidence-based intervention that not only ensures continued protection of children against all types of polio viruses, but also helps save vaccine.
 

IPV

  • PV is produced from wild-type poliovirus strains of each serotype that have been inactivated (killed) with formalin.
  • As an injectable vaccine, it can be administered alone or in combination with other vaccines (e.g., diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, and haemophilus influenza).
  • IPV can be safely administered to children with immune deficiencies (e.g., HIV, congenital or acquired immunodeficiency, sickle cell disease). 
  • In fact, because of the elevated risk of vaccine-associated paralytic polio after the use of OPV in patients with immune deficiencies, IPV is universally recommended in these children. 
  • There are two contraindications for IPV:

                      •    If anyone has a history of an allergic reaction 
                      •    If any infants with known allergy to streptomycin, neomycin, or polymyxin B because they all are inactive components for IPV

LIGO India to Be Ready By 2024
The LIGO India project is likely to be commissioned in 2024. The LIGO India centre, which will study cosmic gravitational waves, will only be the third one in the world.

  •  The LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory) is a massive observatory for detecting cosmic gravitational waves and for carrying out experiments. 
  • The objective is to use gravitational-wave observations in astronomical studies. It would require Indian universities to churn out young researchers trained in the science.

About LIGO India

  • LIGO-India is a planned advanced gravitational-wave observatory to be located in India as part of the worldwide network. The project recently received the in-principle approval from the Indian government. 
  •  LIGO-India is planned as a collaborative project between a consortium of Indian research institutions and the LIGO Laboratory in the USA, along with its international partners Australia, Germany and the UK.
  •  The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) project operates three gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. 
  •  Two are at Hanford in the state of Washington, north-western USA, and one is at Livingston in Louisiana, south-eastern USA. 
  • Currently these observatories are being upgraded to their advanced configurations (called Advanced LIGO). The proposed LIGO-India project aims to move one Advanced LIGO detector from Hanford to India.

Gravitational Waves

  •  Gravitational waves are 'ripples' in the fabric of space-time caused by some of the most violent and energetic processes in the Universe. 
  •  Albert Einstein predicted the existence of gravitational waves in 1916 in his general theory of relativity.
  • Einstein's mathematics showed that massive accelerating objects (such as neutron stars or black holes orbiting each other) would disrupt space-time in such a way that 'waves' of distorted space would radiate from the source (like the movement of waves away from a stone thrown into a pond).
  • Furthermore, these ripples would travel at the speed of light through the Universe, carrying with them information about their cataclysmic origins, as well as invaluable clues to the nature of gravity itself.
  •  The strongest gravitational waves are produced by catastrophic events such as colliding black holes, the collapse of stellar cores (supernovae), coalescing neutron stars or white dwarf stars, the slightly wobbly rotation of neutron stars that are not perfect spheres, and the remnants of gravitational radiation created by the birth of the Universe itself.

India becomes Associate member of CERN

India became an Associate member of CERN  with the Indian government completing its internal approval procedures in respect of the agreement it had signed with CERN on November 21, 2016.India has to pay about Rs. 40 crore a year as an Associate member

Advantage of becoming an associate member

  • As an Associate member India will have full access to all data generated at CERN. As there are many experiments in CERN, there will be plenty of information available. 
  •  When India was not an Associate member, India could get data only from those experiments where we were participating.
  •  As an Associate member, India can participate in all experiments
  • Whenever any CERN facilities get upgraded and go through maintenance, it will provide opportunities for Indian industries to participate. 
  •  Indian industry will be entitled to bid for CERN contracts, which will allow it to work in areas of advanced technology. So the “Make in India” will get a boost due to CERN.
  • Since Indian scientists will become eligible for staff appointments, it will enhance the participation of young scientists and engineers in operation and maintenance of various CERN projects.

Background

  • On November 21, 2016, Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission and Secretary of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) and CERN Director General signed an Agreement to admit India to CERN as an Associate member. But India had to “notify CERN of its final approval for the Agreement to enter into force” and become an Associate member, which it did recently.
  • India’s involvement in CERN began in the 1960s with researchers from the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai participating in experiments at CERN.
  • In 1991, India and CERN signed a Cooperation Agreement, setting priorities for scientific and technical cooperation. India and CERN have signed several other protocols since then.
  •  India was granted Observer status to the CERN Council in 2002.
  •  Indian physicists, engineers and technicians have made substantial contributions to the construction of the LHC accelerator and to the ALICE and CMS experiments, as well as to accelerator R&D projects.

About CERN

  • CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research)is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world. Established in 1954, the organization is based in a northwest suburb of Geneva on the Franco–Swiss border.
  •  Israel is the only non-European country granted full membership.
  •  CERN's main function is to provide the particle accelerators and other infrastructure needed for high-energy physics research – as a result, numerous experiments have been constructed at CERN through international collaborations.
  • CERN is also the birthplace of the World Wide Web

Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations
CEPI was announced at the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland, with initial funding of $460 million from the governments of Germany, Japan and Norway, as well as the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the Welcome Trust. 

  •  The group hopes to shorten the amount of time it takes to develop new vaccines for emerging diseases by embracing innovative vaccine technology and funding labs that are able to respond quickly to outbreaks.
  •  The group is first targeting the MERS-CoV, Lassa and Nipah viruses. All three have the potential to cause large outbreaks, and the goal is to have two potential vaccines for each of these viruses ready before an epidemic hits.

About CEPI

  • Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations, is a "public-private coalition that aims to derail epidemics by speeding development of vaccines".
  • The concept is to develop early phases of vaccines without knowing the details for the form in which the infection will appear, but will still cut down the time to tailor the eventual vaccine to be effective to the epidemic.
  • CEPI's plan includes preparations for possible outbreaks of Lassa fever, Marburg fever, MERS, SARS, Nipah virus, Rift Valley fever, chikungunya, and others. 
  •  It is being funded by the Welcome Trust, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the World Economic Forum, the government of Norway and the Dept of Biotechnology, Ministry of S&T, Government of India.

Physicists have created a new form of hydrogen
Austrian physicists have created negatively charged hydrogen clusters, a previously unseen form of hydrogen. 
The existence of hydrogen in ion clusters has been known for the past forty years, and positively-charged clusters have already existed. But by injecting cold liquid helium droplets with hydrogen before exposing it to an electron beam, the researchers created negatively charged hydrogen ions.

Positively Charged Hydrogen Clusters
To understand negatively charged hydrogen clusters, one first needs to understand their counterparts - positively charged hydrogen clusters. Clusters of a few or many hydrogen molecules are known simply as hydrogen ion clusters. They form at very low temperatures and can contain as many as 100 individual atoms.
 
How Were Negatively Charged Hydrogen Clusters Created?

  •  The team of physicists from the University of Innsbruck in Austria, first injected cold liquid helium droplets with hydrogen molecules to form clusters with a neutral charge.
  •  Next, they exposed these hydrogen-infused droplets to an electron beam. This caused some hydrogen molecules to ionize, and be flung out into the surrounding vacuum as negatively charged hydrogen ions.
  • Soon, the nearby hydrogen molecules started clustering around the negatively charged ions to create negatively charged hydrogen clusters that could boast a few, or many molecules each.
  •  The newly created negatively charged hydrogen clusters existed only for a few moments - several microseconds (1 microsecond = 0.000001 seconds). 

 
Why does all this matter? 
Researchers have suspected for years that large hydrogen clusters could form naturally in outer space. Now that they know that negatively charged hydrogen clusters are not impossible, it would be easier to identify the clusters in nature.

ISRO to launch record 103 satellites at one go in February
India’s space agency ISRO will launch a record 103 satellites — all but three of them foreign — at one go on a single rocket in February in what will be a major feat not attempted by any country.

About the launch

  • These will be 100 micro-small satellites, which will be launched using a PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle)-C37. The weight of the payload will be 1350 kgs, of which 500-600 kgs will be the satellite’s weight
  • The launch will be a major feat in country’s space history as no exercise on this scale has been attempted before.
  • The highest number of satellites launched in a single mission is 37, a record that Russia set in 2014. The US space agency NASA launched 29.

Other project to be launched by ISRO in coming Months

  •  Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s pet South Asian satellite project, will take off in March.
  •  The South Asian satellite will be a part of GSAT-9.
  •   Envisaged as a gift to its neighbours, the project, earlier known as SAARC satellite, faced stiff resistance from Pakistan. 
  •  The neighbouring country wanted it to be launched under the aegis of the South Asian regional forum. It later backed out of the project.
  •   Talks with Afghanistan to have the country on-board for the project is in its final stages.
  •   Apart from India, the satellite will benefit Sri Lanka, Maldives, Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan.

GM mosquito trials to control dengue, chikungunya launched
Trails launched  to demonstrate the efficiency of genetically modified mosquitoes to suppress wild female Aedes aegypti mosquito populations that transmit dengue, chikungunya and Zika .

Background

  • Laboratory-based studies have already been carried out in India since 2012 by GBIT and Oxitec and these studies have demonstrated the compatibility of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.
  • Based on the results of the trials, which use the Release of Insects carrying Dominant Lethal genes (RIDL) technology, and permission from Indian regulatory authorities, Gangabishan Bhikulal Investment and Trading Limited (GBIT) and Oxitec, plan to conduct open field trials in the country

What is it all about
     Oxitec’s technology uses genetically modified male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that carry a dominant lethal gene. 

  •  When male GM mosquitoes mate with wild female mosquitoes the lethal gene is passed on to offspring. The lethal gene in the offspring kills the larvae before they reach adulthood.
  • The efficiency to kill offspring was over 99% and male mosquitoes imported from the U.K are able to mate with locally available wild female mosquitoes and the longevity of imported mosquitoes is the same as the wild ones.

Advantage of technology

  •  Large numbers of GM male mosquitoes have to be released at regular intervals to compete with wild normal males for mating. Since the larvae die before reaching adulthood, the technology is a “self-limiting approach”.
  •  Also ,since male mosquitoes do not bite humans, the release of GM males will not increase the risk of dengue, chikungunya and Zika.

World’s first stable semi-synthetic organism created
In a breakthrough, scientists have created the first stable semi-synthetic organism – a single-celled bacterium – that may play important roles in drug discovery and other applications.

About the research

  • Life’s genetic code has only ever contained four natural bases. These bases pair up to form two base pairs – the rungs of the DNA ladder – and they have simply been rearranged to create all life as we know it, from bacteria to humans.
  • But in the new research team has  created a new bacterium that uses the four natural bases (called A, T, C and G), which every living organism possesses, but that also holds as a pair two synthetic bases called X and Y in its genetic code.

How it was produced

  •  Scientists  optimised a tool called a nucleotide transporter, which brings the materials necessary for the unnatural base pair to be copied across the cell membrane. The researchers discovered a modification to the transporter that that made it much easier for the organism to grow and divide while holding on to X and Y.
  • They then optimised their previous version of Y, creating a chemically different molecule that can be better recognised by the enzymes that synthesise DNA molecules during DNA replication. This made it easier for cells to copy the synthetic base pair.
  •  Researchers then used gene editing tool CRISPR-Cas9 to design their organism to see a genetic sequence without X and Y as a foreign invader. A cell that dropped X and Y would be marked for destruction, leaving the scientists with an organism that could hold on to the new bases.

Significance of the research
 The work could be used to create new functions for single-celled organisms that play important roles in drug discovery and much more. 

Cryogenic Upper Stage for GSLV Mk III tested successfully
ISRO has successfully tested its indigenously developed cryogenic engine in a major step forward for its landmark 'GSLV Mk III' rocket, scheduled for launch within the first quarter this year .

  • The cryogenic upper stage, designated as C25, was tested for 50 seconds at ISRO Propulsion Complex (IPRC) at Mahendragiri in Tamil Nadu, demonstrating all the stage operations.
  • The development of C25 cryogenic stage began with the approval of GSLV MkIII, the next generation launch vehicle of ISRO, capable of launching 4 ton class spacecraft in Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO). 
  • C25 stage was conceptualised, designed and realised by Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC), ISRO's lead Centre for Propulsion, with support from various System Development Agencies from other three Centres of ISRO - Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), ISRO Propulsion Complex (IPRC) and Sathish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC). 

About  Indigenous Cryogenic Engine 

  •  A Cryogenic rocket stage is more efficient and provides more thrust for every kilogram of propellant it burns compared to solid and earth-storable liquid propellant rocket stages. 
  •  Specific impulse (a measure of the efficiency) achievable with cryogenic propellants (liquid Hydrogen and liquid Oxygen) is much higher compared to earth storable liquid and solid propellants, giving it a substantial payload advantage. 
  •  However, cryogenic stage is technically a very complex system compared to solid or earth-storable liquid propellant stages due to its use of propellants at extremely low temperatures and the associated thermal and structural problems. 
  • Oxygen liquefies at -183 deg C and Hydrogen at -253 deg C. The propellants, at these low temperatures are to be pumped using turbo pumps running at around 40,000 rpm

About GSLV MKIII

  • It is a launch vehicle developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).
  • It is intended to launch satellites into geostationary orbit and as a launcher for an Indian crew vehicle. The GSLV-III features an Indian cryogenic third stage and a higher payload capacity than the current GSLV

Sample Question
Q1.Consider the following statements regarding Cell for IPR Promotion and Management (CIPAM).
1.    It is under the aegis of the Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion (DIPP), Ministry of Commerce & Industry.
2.    CIPAM is actively facilitating International engagements in the field of Intellectual Property Rights.
Choose the correct option
a)Only 1             b)Only 2
c)Both                 d)None

 

Q2.Consider the following statements regarding Mini Grids
1.    It is an off-grid power system with a generation capacity of between 10 KW and 500 KW. 
2.    It converts alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC) .
3.    The power that comes out is regular and standard with no fluctuations
Choose the correct option
a)Only 1               b)2,3
c)Only 1,2           d)only 1,3